Mountaineering Basic Knowledge : Mount Rinjani

Mountaineering Basic Knowledge For Mount Rinjani Trekking and Tour: Mountain climbing activity lately seems no longer a rare activity, meaning that it is no longer only done by certain people (who call themselves groups of Nature Lovers, Nature Explorers and the like). But it has been done by people from the public.

However, that does not mean we can assume that everything related to mountain climbing activities becomes an easy field of skills and has no theoretical knowledge base. In climbing a mountain there are many things that we must know (as a lover of nature) in the form of: climbing rules, climbing equipment, preparation, good ways, to climb mountains and others. Everything is included in the Mountaineering field.

Let’s look at the important things related to Mountaineering Basic Knowledge


(First Mountaineering Basic Knowledge) Mountain climbing in the sense of Mountaineering consists of three stages of activity, namely:

1. Walk (Hill Walking)

Mountaineering Basic KnowledgeIn particular this activity is called mountain climbing. Hill Walking is the most common activity in Indonesia. Most mountains in Indonesia only allow the development of this stage. Here the more prominent aspects are the attraction of nature interested

2. Climbing (Rock Climbing)

(Second Mountaineering Basic Knowledge) Although this activity was forced to separate from Mountaineering, it remained a branch of it. The rapid development has given rise to many rock climbing methods which apparently need to be deepened specifically. But the principle is with three points and weight and the foot stops, hands only give help.

3. Climbing Ice & Snow Climbing

Both types of activities can be separated from each other. Ice Climbing is a method of climbing cliffs / icebergs, while Snow Climbing is a technique for climbing mountain climbing. In the three types of activities above, it certainly includes: Mount camping, Mount Rescue, field navigation and maps, mountainous first aid, Rock Climbing techniques and others.


(Second Part of Mountaineering Basic Knowledge)

1. Introduction to Terrain

To master the terrain and take into account the hazards of an object a climber must master the knowledge of the field, namely reading maps, using a compass and altimeter. Knowing weather or climate changes. Another way to find out the terrain that will be faced is to ask the people who have climbed the mountain. But the best way is to include people who have climbed the mountain with us.

2. Physical Preparation

Physical preparation for mountain climbers mainly includes aerobic energy and muscle flexibility. Physical fitness will affect oxygen transport through blood circulation to the body muscles, and this is important because the higher an area the lower the oxygen level.

3. Team Preparation

Determine team members and divide tasks and group them and plan everything related to climbing.

4. Supplies and Equipment

Equipment preparation is the beginning of the mountain climb itself. Mountain climbing equipment is generally expensive, but this is natural because this is the safety protector of the climber itself. Mountain is an environment that is foreign to our organs that are used to living in lower areas. Therefore, adequate equipment is needed so that climbers are able to adjust at the new height. Such as shoes, backpacks, clothes, tents, bedding, cooking utensils, food, medicines and others.

Planning Vacation to Rinjani Mountain

C. THREAT ON THE MOUNTAIN (Urgent Mountaineering Basic Knowledge)

In mountain climbing there are two factors that influence the success or failure of a climb.

a) Internal Factors

That is the factor that came from the climber himself. If this factor is not well prepared it will bring the danger of the subject, namely because of poor preparation, physical preparation, equipment, knowledge, skills and mentality.

b) External Factors

That is the factor that comes from outside the climber. This danger comes from the object of the ascent (mountain), so technically it is called an object hazard. This danger can be in the form of storms, rain, cold air, heavy forest avalanches and others. Accidents that occur in Indonesia’s mountains are generally caused by internal factors. Curiosity and excessive liking and impulse to play a role, disease, want to be respected by all people and limitations to ourselves.


Generally the steps (part of Mountaineering Basic Knowledge) that are usually carried out by groups of nature lovers in a mountain climbing activity include three steps, namely:

1. Preparation

What is meant by mountain climbing preparation is:

– Determine the management of the climbing committee, who will work to take care of: Ascent permits, calculation of the budget, determination of the climbing schedule, preparation of equipment / transportation and all kinds of other matters relating to climbing.

– Physical and mental preparation of climber members, this is usually done by exercising regularly to optimize physical conditions and to minimize breath resistance. Mental preparation can be done by searching / studying unexpected possibilities arising in the climb along with methods of prevention / resolution.

2. Implementation

If you want to climb a mountain that has never been climbed before it is recommended to bring a guide / guide or at least someone who has ever climbed the mountain, or can also be done with the knowledge of reading the hiking trail.

To facilitate coordination, all climbing participants were divided into three groups, namely:

* Pioneer group

* Core group

* Sweeper group

Each group is appointed by the field commander (person in charge of coordination). Register your group in the climbing book available at each climbing base camp, usually contacting Search And Rescue members or caretakers of the mountain.

In the course of the group’s position was kept constant, namely: Pioneer in front (accompanied by a guide), initiation group in the middle, and sweeper team behind. Don’t be reluctant to reprimand participants who violate these rules.

Likewise during the decline, the original position was kept constant. After arriving at the top and at the base camp, don’t forget to check the number of participants, who knows who is left behind.

3. Evaluation

Get used to do an evaluation of each activity that you do, because with evaluation we will know the weaknesses and weaknesses that we do. This is towards improvement and goodness.


Climbing the mountain is a struggle, human struggle against heights and all the consequences. With changing altitude, environmental conditions will clearly change. Environmental elements whose changes are apparent when associated with altitude are the temperature and oxygen content of the air. The higher the altitude, the lower the temperature and the air oxygen content decreases. (Mountaineering Basic Knowledge)

Such natural phenomena and their consequences for the safety of our souls are the most important thing we know in studying the physiological processes of the body in the elevation area. Many accidents occur in the mountains due to lack of knowledge, empty experience and incomplete means of salvation.

1) Consequences of Decreasing Temperature

Humans include warm-blooded organisms, thus humans have a thermoregulatory mechanism to maintain the condition of body temperature against changes in the temperature of their environment. But temperatures that are too extreme can be dangerous. If the body is in a low temperature, the body will be stimulated to increase metabolism to maintain internal body temperature (egg by shivering). To compensate for the increase in metabolism we need to eat a lot, because the food we eat is the source of energy and energy produced through oxidation.

2) Consequences of Decreasing the Amount of Oxygen

Oxygen for the body of an aerobic organism is a vital consumption to ensure the continuity of biochemical processes in the body, consumption in the body is usually very closely related to the number of red blood cells from the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. The higher the amount of red blood and hemoglobin concentration, the oxygen capacity of respiration will increase. Therefore, to overcome the lack of oxygen at altitude, we need to conduct aerobic exercise, because besides improving blood circulation, this exercise also stimulates the stimulation of the synthesis of red blood cells.

3) Physical Fitness

Physical fitness is the main requirement in climbing. The most important component that is viewed from the physiological point of view is the cardiovascular system and neuromusculare

A mountaineer at a certain height will experience unpleasant things, which are caused by hypoxia (lack of oxygen), this is called mountain sickness (mountain sickness). Physical work capacity will decrease significantly at an altitude of 2000 meters, while the aerobic work capacity will decrease (by carrying a load of 15 Kg) and also the degree of acclimation of the body will be slow.

Mountain sickness is characterized by the onset of symptoms:

– Feeling a headache or dizziness

– Difficult or unable to sleep

– Loss of emotional control or irritability

– Breathing is rather heavy

– Interpretations often occur or the wishes are weird, behave as they wish and can lead to mental disorders.

– Usually feels nauseous and sometimes even vomiting, if this happens then this person must be immediately helped by giving food / drinks to prevent stomach void.

– These symptoms will usually be more severe in the morning, and will peak at the second day.

If among climbing participants experience these symptoms, it is necessary to be treated / sedated early or prevented from rising higher. Whenever you are already badly affected by strange emotions and behavior and don’t care about advice (stubborn), then the best way is to faint him.

At an altitude of more than 3000 MASL, cerebral hypoxia can cause the ability to make decisions and reasoning to decrease. Incorrect self-esteem can also arise, a reduction in sharpness and impaired coordination of arm and leg movements. At an altitude of 5000 m, the hypoxia is more real and at an altitude of 6000 m, its consciousness can disappear altogether.

4) Aerobics Program

This program / training is the basis that needs to get maximum physical capacity at altitude. The capacity of one’s physical work is related to the smooth transportation of oxygen in the body of respiration jam.

The habit of doing aerobic exercise regularly, can increase the smooth circulation of blood in the body, increase the number of blood vessels that enter the tissue, increase the synthesis of red blood, increase the content of the amount of blood hemoglobin and also maintain the work optimization of the heart. With the fulfillment of the things mentioned above, the mechanism for sending oxygen through blood vessels to the cells that need it is more guaranteed.

For this aerobic preparation / training usually must be intensified for the previous two months. Regular exercise can also increase strength (endurance) and flexibility (flexibility) of muscles, increased self-confidence (mental), determination and willpower. In the exercise the pulse reaches 80% of the maximum pulse, usually only reached after running for 20 minutes. A person who can be said to have high aerobic fitness if he can use a minimum of oxygen per minute per Kg of body weight. Which of course is adapted to the age of strength training is also used to maintain maximum endurance, and flexible movements. This is usually with weight training, it’s good to do 25-50 minutes aerobics every day.

F. BASIC KNOWLEDGE FOR MOUNTAINEER (Must be urgent for Mountaineering basic Knowledge)

1. Terrain Orientation

a. Determine the direction of travel and position on the map

§ With two points in the field that can be identified in the image on the map.

§ If one identification point is known, there are several ways that can be achieved:

a) If we are on the path or river that is printed on the map, then the intersection of the line drawn from the point of identification with a trail or river is our position.

b) Using an altimeter. The intersection between the line drawn from the identification point and the contour at the height point corresponding to the number on the altimeter is our position.

c) Do it roughly.

b. Using a compass

c. Map on the way

2. Reading the State of Nature

– Air condition (weather, temperature, cloud change)

– Read passwords

3. Level of Mountain Climbing

So that everyone knows whether the path to be taken is difficult or easy, then in mountain climbing sports are made a classification of the difficulty level of each field or mountain trajectory.

This classification depends on the cliff or mountain character, the climber’s temperament and physical appearance, weather, strong and fragile rock on the cliffs, and various other variables.

Class 1: Walk. No special equipment and techniques are needed.

Class 2: Scrambling. It is advisable to wear decent shoes. Hand use may be needed to help.

Class 3: Climbing. Ropes are needed for inexperienced climbers.

Class 4: Climb with rope and belay. Anchor for belaying may be needed.

Class 5: Climb freely with the use of belay ropes and runners. This class is divided into 13 levels.

Class 6: Artificial climbing. The rope and anchor are used for upward movement. This class is often called class A. Then divided into 5 levels.

G. TRAVEL MANAGEMENT & EQUIPMENT (Part Of Mountaineering basic Knowledge)

Mountaineering Basic Knowledge

1. Planning a trip

The first thing to do is to find information. To get data data we can obtain from the literature in the form of books or articles that we need or from people who have done climbing on the object we are going to go to. It is also not wrong to ask for information from local residents or anyone who understands the description of the terrain we will climb.

Next, make an TOP (Travel Operation Plan). Make a detailed and detailed plan, which contains the area to be addressed, how long the activity takes place, what equipment is needed, the food that needs to be taken, the estimated cost of travel, how to reach the area, and procedures management of climbing permits in the area, then make the TOP carefully and in as much detail as possible, starting from the details of the time before the activity until after the activity Arrange the division of jobs with other climbing members (one group), determine when to eat, when to rest, and so.

The point is in planning the climb, you should pay attention to:

– Recognize your ability in teams in the face of terrain.

– Study the terrain to be traveled.

– Research the climbing plan and the route to be taken as carefully as possible.

– Think of the time used in climbing.

– Check all equipment to be carried.

2. Basic travel equipment

– Road equipment: shoes, socks, pants, belts, clothes, hats, raincoats, etc.

– Sleeping equipment: sleeping bag, tent, mattress etc.

– Cooking and eating equipment: stoves, spoons, food, matches etc.

– Personal equipment: needles, threads, personal medicine, brushes, toilet paper / tissue, etc.

– Backpack / carrier.

3. Helper equipment

Compass, flashlight, waist knife, cleaver cleaver, medicine.

Map, protractor, douglass protector, ruler, pencil etc. Communication tools (Handy talky), survival kits, GPS [if any], watches.

4. Packing or arranging equipment into a backpack.

– Group items according to the type.

– Put in a plastic bag.

– Place items that are lightweight and rarely use them (eg equipment) on the deepest.

– Items that are often used and vital place as close to the body as possible and are easily taken.

– Place items that are heavier as high and as close as possible to the body / back.

– Create a checklist for the item.

5. Guidelines for Open Natural Travel

To plan a trip to the wild there must be preparation and careful preparation. There is a formula that is commonly used, namely 4W & 1H, which stands for Where, Who, Why, When and How. As for our desired destination we can develop a plan of activities which includes details:

a. Field selection, taking into account base camp locations, time sharing and so on.

b. Licensing

c. Division of committee assignments

d. Event preparation

e. Equipment and equipment needs

f. and so forth.

6. Packing

Before doing outdoor activities we usually determine the equipment and equipment that will be taken first, if it’s all ready it’s time to pack these items into a carrier or backpack. Good packing makes your trip comfortable because it is concise and not difficult.

7. Personal Equipment Free

Outdoor activity is a risky activity that requires careful calculation. If it is wrong then it is not impossible that disaster will threaten at any time. For example, a reference has noted that one of the outdoor activities of rock climbing is a type of sport whose risk of death is ranked second after the formula-1 race.

Of course this risk occurs if safety procedures are not a serious concern, but if safety procedures are observed and often practice, then the risk can be reduced to the safest point.

The journey of the wild will definitely come into contact with the weather, the terrain and time situations that are sometimes unfriendly, whether night or day, therefore adequate equipment must be prepared.

One of the “self shields” when doing outdoor activities is personal equipment. Such as: headgear / top, scarves, clothes, pants, jackets, slepping bags, shoes, carrier bags or backpacks, cooking utensils, food and baths, medicines and Survival Kits.

8. Supplies Planning

9. General preparation

General preparation for climbing mountains includes mental, physical, ethical, knowledge and skills readiness.

· Mental readiness.

· Physical readiness.

· Administrative readiness.

· Readiness of knowledge and skills.

10. Preparation for mountain climbing

11. Know the Mountain Type and Climbing Grade

12. Food (logistics)

13. Other equipment (bags for garbage and wet bags)

So that’s a very important thing about Mountaineering basic Knowledge for all of us to know. Hopefully useful for you

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